Ce fac comerțul cu centrele comerciale
Etymology[ edit ] The word retail comes from the Old French verb tailler, meaning "to cut off, clip, pare, divide in terms of tailoring" c. It was first recorded as a noun in with the meaning of "a sale in small quantities" from the Middle French verb retailler meaning "a piece cut off, shred, scrap, paring".
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Definition and explanation[ edit ] Retail refers to the activity of selling goods or services directly to consumers or end-users. In some jurisdictions or regions, legal definitions of retail specify that at least 80 percent of sales activity must be to end-users. Retail service providers include retail banking, tourism, insurance, private healthcare, private education, private security firms, legal firms, publishers, public transport and others.
For example, a tourism provider might have a retail division that books travel and accommodation for consumers plus a wholesale division that purchases blocks of accommodation, hospitality, transport and sightseeing which are subsequently packaged into a holiday tour for sale to retail travel agents.
Some retailers badge their stores as "wholesale outlets" offering "wholesale prices. Different jurisdictions set parameters for the ratio of consumer to business sales that define a retail business. Main article: History of retail Marketplace at Trajan's Forum, the earliest known example of permanent retail shopfronts Grand Bazaar, Istanbul interior. Established init is thought to be the oldest continuously operating covered market Retail markets have existed since ancient times.
Archaeological evidence for trade, probably involving barter systems, dates back more than 10, years. As civilizations ce fac comerțul cu centrele comerciale, barter was replaced with retail trade involving coinage.
The Grand Bazaar in Istanbul ce fac comerțul cu centrele comerciale often cited as the world's oldest continuously-operating market; its construction began in The Spanish conquistadors wrote glowingly of markets in the Americas. In the 15th century, the Mexica Aztec market of Tlatelolco was the largest in all the Americas. Provincial shopkeepers were active in almost every English market town.
The trappings of a modern shop, which had been entirely absent from the sixteenth- and early seventeenth-century store, gradually made way for store interiors and shopfronts that are more familiar to modern shoppers.
Prior to the eighteenth century, the typical retail store had no counter, display cases, ce fac comerțul cu ce fac comerțul cu centrele comerciale comerciale, mirrors, changing rooms, etc. However, the opportunity for the customer to browse merchandise, touch and feel products began to be available, with retail innovations from the late 17th and early 18th centuries. A shopping arcade refers to a multiple-vendor space, operating under a covered roof. Typically, the roof was constructed of glass to allow for natural light and to reduce the need for candles or electric lighting.
Some of the earliest examples of shopping arcade appeared in Paris, due to its lack of pavement for pedestrians. John Stuart Mill ce fac comerțul cu centrele comerciale about the rise of the co-operative retail store, which he witnessed first-hand in the mid-nineteenth century.
Although catalogue sales had been used since the 15th century, this method of retailing was confined to a few industries such as the sale of books and seeds. However, improvements in transport and postal services led several entrepreneurs on either side of the Atlantic to experiment with catalogue sales.
Gruen's vision was to create a shopping atmosphere where people felt so comfortable, they would spend more time in the environment, thereby enhancing opportunities for purchasing. The first of these malls opened at Northland Mall near Detroit in The average size of a U. See also: Strategic planning Retailers make many strategic decisions — store type, market served, product assortment and customer services The distinction between "strategic" and "managerial" decision-making is commonly used to distinguish "two phases having different goals and based on different conceptual tools.
Strategic planning concerns the choice of policies aiming at improving the competitive position of the firm, taking account of challenges and opportunities proposed by the competitive environment. On the other hand, managerial decision-making is focused on the implementation of specific targets. As part of the strategic planning process, it is customary for strategic planners to carry out a detailed environmental scan which seeks to identify trends and opportunities in the competitive environment, market environment, economic environment and statutory-political environment.
The retail strategy is normally devised or reviewed every 3— 5 years by the chief executive officer. Not all elements are, however, equal, often with demographics, shopping motivations, and spending directing consumer activities.
In a highly competitive market, the retail strategy sets up long-term sustainability. It focuses on customer relationships, stressing the importance of added value, customer satisfaction and highlights how the store's market positioning appeals to targeted groups of customers.
A retail mix is devised for the purpose of coordinating day-to-day tactical decisions. The retail marketing mix typically consists of six broad decision layers including product decisions, place decisions, promotion, price, personnel and presentation also known as physical evidence.
The retail mix is loosely based on the marketing mixbut has been expanded and modified transfer de câștiguri online line with the unique needs of the retail context. A number of scholars have argued for an expanded marketing, mix with the inclusion of two new Ps, namely, Personnel and Presentation since these contribute to the customer's unique retail experience and are the principal basis for retail differentiation.
Yet other scholars argue that the Retail Format i. These decisions depend ce fac comerțul cu centrele comerciale careful analysis of the market, demand, competition as well as the retailer's skills and expertise.
- Retail - Wikipedia
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- Ultima actualizare: Sep 23, Scris de Conspecte Team Accesări: 5, Comerţul integrat reprezintă un sistem de organizare a activităţii comerciale, în cadrul căruia întreprinderile cumulează atît funcţiile comerţului cu ridicata, cît şi ale aceluia cu amănuntul.
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- Comerțul cu amănuntul în antichitate[ modificare modificare sursă ] Piețele de desfacere datează din cele mai vechi timpuri.
Customer service is the firme de opțiuni binare of acts and elements that allow consumers to receive what they need or desire from [the] retail establishment. In addition, the retailer needs to make decisions about sales support such as customer delivery and after sales customer care. Sellers of ce fac comerțul cu centrele comerciale are typically located in high castiga putin repede areas such as this London souvenir stand situated near a railway ce fac comerțul cu centrele comerciale on a busy street corner Place decisions are primarily concerned with consumer access and may involve location, space utilisation and operating hours.
Retailers may consider a range of both qualitative and quantitative factors to evaluate to potential sites under consideration. Macro factors include market characteristics demographic, economic and socio-culturaldemand, competition and infrastructure e.
Micro factors include the size of the site e. A major retail trend has been the shift to multi-channel retailing. To counter the disruption caused by online retail, many bricks and mortar retailers have entered the online retail space, by setting up online catalogue sales and e-commerce websites.
However, many retailers have noticed that consumers behave differently when shopping online. For instance, in terms of choice of online platform, shoppers tend to choose the online site of their preferred retailer initially, but as they gain more experience in online shopping, they become less loyal and more likely to switch to other retail sites. Extensive use of the terminal digit 'nine' suggests that psychological pricing is at play The broad pricing strategy is normally established in the company's overall strategic plan.
In the case of chain stores, the pricing strategy would be set by head office. Broadly, there are six approaches to pricing strategy mentioned in the marketing literature: operations-oriented,  revenue-oriented,  customer-oriented,  value-based  relationship-oriented and socially-oriented.
Tactical pricing decisions are shorter term prices, designed to accomplish specific short-term goals. Pricing tactics that are commonly used in retail include discount pricing,  everyday low prices high-low pricing,   loss leadersproduct bundling promotional pricing, and psychological pricing.
All payment options require some type of handling and attract costs. Employee scheduling software is sold, which, using known patterns of customer patronage, more or less reliably predicts the need for staffing for various functions at times of the year, day of the month or week, and time of day.
Usually needs vary widely. This may result in financial problems for the workers, who while they are required to be available at all times if their work hours are to be maximized, may not have sufficient income to meet their family and other obligations.
In this one-time transaction process, both parties aim to maximize their own interests. As a result, transactional marketing raises follow-up problems such as poor after-sales service quality and a lack of feedback channels for both parties. In addition, because retail enterprises needed to redevelop client relationships for each transaction, marketing costs were high and customer retention was low. All these downsides to transactional marketing gradually pushed the retail industry towards establishing long-term cooperative relationships with customers.
Through this lens, enterprises began to focus on the process from transaction to relationship. Under this concept, retail enterprises ce fac comerțul cu centrele comerciale and attempt to improve relationships with customers, as customer relationships are conducive to maintaining stability in the current competitive retail market, and are also the future of retail enterprises.
Simplified servicescapes model Modern technologies are often displayed in clean environments with much empty space. The retail servicescape includes the appearance, equipment, display space, retail counters, signage, layout and functionality of a retail outlet.
Pictured: Harrods food court Presentation refers to the physical evidence that signals the retail image. Physical evidence may include a diverse range of elements — the store itself including premises, offices, exterior facade and interior layout, websites, delivery vans, warehouses, staff uniforms.
The environment in which the retail service encounter occurs is sometimes known as the retail servicescape. Retail designers pay close attention ce fac comerțul cu centrele comerciale the front of the store, which is known as the sistem de câștig pe internet zone.
In order to maximise the number of selling opportunities, retailers generally want customers to spend more time in a retail store. However, this must be balanced against customer expectations surrounding convenience, access and realistic waiting times. Where a product is placed on the shelves has implications for purchase likelihood as a result of visibility and access.
One strand is primarily concerned with shopper motivations. Another stream opțiuni binare de la 0 1 research seeks to segment shoppers according to common, shared characteristics.
To ce fac comerțul cu centrele comerciale extent, these streams of research are inter-related, but each stream offers different types of insights into shopper behaviour. People who shop for pleasure are known as recreational shoppers.
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The recreational shopper has its origins in the grand European shopping arcades. Pictured: The gentry in a Dutch lace shop in the 17th century Babin et al. Utilitarian motivations are task-related and rational. For the shopper with utilitarian motives, purchasing is a work-related task that is to be accomplished in the most efficient and expedient manner. On the other hand, hedonic motives refer to pleasure.
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The shopper with hedonic motivations views shopping as a form of escapism where they are free to indulge fantasy and freedom. Hedonic shoppers are more involved in the shopping experience. Retailers develop customised segmentation analyses for each unique outlet. However, it is possible to identify a number of broad shopper profiles. One of the most well-known and widely cited shopper typologies is that developed by Sproles and Kendal in the mids.
Brand-conscious: Brand-consciousness is characterised by a tendency to buy expensive, well-known brands or designer labels.
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Those who score high on brand-consciousness tend to believe that the higher prices are an indicator of quality and exhibit a preference for department stores or top-tier retail outlets. Those who score high on recreation-consciousness regard shopping itself as a form of enjoyment.
Price-conscious: A consumer who exhibits price-and-value consciousness. Impulsive: Impulsive consumers are somewhat careless in making purchase decisions, buy on the spur of the moment and are not overly concerned with expenditure levels or obtaining value.
Those who score high on impulsive dimensions tend not to be engaged with the object at either a cognitive or emotional level. Confused by overchoice : characterised by a consumer's confusion caused by too many product choices, too many stores or an overload of product information; tend to experience information overload.
Some researchers have adapted Sproles and Kendall's methodology for use in specific countries or cultural groups. Retail format: types of retail outlet[ edit ] Main article: Retail format Australia's Officeworks is a category killer, retailing everything for the home office or small commercial office; stationery, furniture, electronics, communications devices, copying, printing and photography services, coffee, tea and light snacks Apple's concept stores include video walls, Wi-Fi and desks to provide an immersive customer experience A general store in Scarsdale, Victoria, Australia operates as a post-office, newsagent, petrol station, video hire, grocer and take-away food retailer A local store named "Luovon puoji" in the Hailuoto IslandFinland The retail format also known as ce fac comerțul cu centrele comerciale retail formula influences the consumer's store choice and addresses the consumer's expectations.
At its most basic level, a retail format is a simple marketplacethat is; a location where goods and services are exchanged. In some parts of the world, the retail sector is still dominated by small family-run stores, but large retail chains are increasingly dominating the sector, because they can exert considerable buying power and pass on the savings in the form of lower prices. Many of these large retail chains also produce their own private labels which compete alongside manufacturer brands.
Considerable consolidation of retail stores has changed the retail landscape, transferring power away from wholesalers and into the hands of the large retail chains.
The European Service Directive applies to all retail trade including periodic markets, street traders and peddlers. Retail stores may be classified by the type of product carried. Softline retailers sell goods that are consumed after a single-useor have a limited life typically under three years in they are normally consumed. Soft goods include clothingother fabricsfootweartoiletriescosmeticsmedicines and stationery.
Retailers selling consumer durables are sometimes known as hardline retailers  — automobilesapplianceselectronicsfurnituresporting goodslumberetc. Specialist retailers operate in many industries such as the arts e.
Challenges[ edit ] To achieve and maintain a foothold in an existing market, a prospective retail establishment must overcome the following hurdles : regulatory barriers including: restrictions on real-estate purchases, especially as imposed by local governments and against "big-box" chain retailers restrictions on foreign investment in retailers, in terms of both absolute amount of financing provided and percentage share of ce fac comerțul cu centrele comerciale stock e.
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